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K-2 Report Card

Sample Report Cards

Kindergarten

First Grade

Second Grade

Explanation of Objectives


Kindergarten

Language Arts

Foundational Skills

Demonstrates understanding of the organization and basic features of print
Students will understand basic print features. They will learn that:
  • books have a correct position that
  • print has specific directionality
  • print has meaning and is made up of letters
Recognizes and names all upper- and lowercase letters
Recognizes and produces rhyming words

Which word rhymes with this one?

Segments and blends phonemes
  • Say each sound you hear in this word slowly.
  • What do you hear at the beginning of this word? What do you hear next? At the end?
Knows and applies phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words
Students continue learning specific strategies for decoding words in texts. Learning letter-sound correspondence, vowel patterns, and high frequency words, enhances decoding, spelling ability, and vocabulary development.
Use questions and prompts such as:
  • Does that sound right?
  • Does that look right?
  • Does that make sense?
  • Look at the word, does it look like…?
  • You said…does it look like…?
  • Look at the beginning of that word, can you get it started?
Distinguishes short and long vowel sounds

Learning letter-sound correspondence, vowel patterns, and high frequency words, enhances decoding, spelling ability, and vocabulary development.

Reads high-frequency words by sight

(e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does)

Writes high-frequency words
Reads text fluently with purpose and understanding
Fluency helps the reader process language for meaning and enjoyment. Fluent readers are able to focus attention on the meaning of the text. Readers at this stage benefit from opportunities to read texts multiple times at an independent level.
Use questions and prompts such as:
  • Make your voice sound like talking.
  • Listen to me and read it like this.
  • Does that make sense?
  • Does that sound right?

Reading Standards for Literature

 
With support, asks and answers questions using key details in a text

With assistance, students will understand what key details are and be able to ask and answer questions about them.

With support, retells stories including characters, settings, and events
They need to put key details in sequential order to retell a story they know. They also have to be able to recognize and name elements in a story.
Use questions and prompts such as:
  • Can you tell me what happened at the beginning of the story? What happened after that? What happened at the end of the story?
  • Can you find the part that tells where the story takes place (picture or words)?
  • Who was in the story? Can you find (picture or words) this character?
With support, compares and contrasts characters' experiences
Students will look for similarities and differences in characters’ experiences within stories they know.
Use questions and prompts such as:
  • What is the same about the characters in the two stories? What is different?
  • How did the characters solve the problem in the two stories? Did they solve the problem in the same way?

Reading Standards for Informational Text

With support, identifies the main topic and key details
With assistance, students will understand what key details are and be able to ask and answer questions about them. They should be able to state the main idea in their own words. At this level, students are required to tell how two individuals, events, ideas or information are linked together. 

Use questions and prompts such as:
  • Using what you read, write (dictate or draw) or ask your own questions about an important idea from this text.
  • What is the main idea of this text?
  • Can you find one of the important ideas in this text? Can you find another important idea?
  • Can you tell me how these two ideas are the same? Can you tell me how they are different? 
Describes the connection between two individuals, events, or ideas
With assistance, students will understand what key details are and be able to ask and answer questions about them. They should be able to state the main idea in their own words. At this level, students are required to tell how two individuals, events, ideas or information are linked together. 

Use questions and prompts such as:
  • Using what you read, write (dictate or draw) or ask your own questions about an important idea from this text.
  • What is the main idea of this text?
  • Can you find one of the important ideas in this text? Can you find another important idea?
  • Can you tell me how these two ideas are the same? Can you tell me how they are different?
With support, identifies text features and their connection to the text
With assistance, students should understand how a piece of informational text is structured. At this level, students ask and answer questions about words they do not know; they can identify the main print concepts/features of a book and understand the roles of both author and illustrator. 
Use questions and prompts such as:
  • What do you do when you come to a word you do not know? What can help you? (glossary, use context)
  • What is the job of the author?
  • What is the job of the illustrator?
  • Show me the front of the book.
  • Show me the back of the book.
With support, compares and contrasts two texts on the same topic
With assistance, students will understand how illustrations help explain the text and discuss similarities and differences in two texts that share the same main idea. At this level, students should also develop the ability to recognize the author’s reasoning by finding support within the text. 

Use questions and prompts such as:
  • Look at this picture. Can you tell how the author uses this picture to help you understand the topic?
  • What does this picture add to your thinking about what you (we) read?
  • Can you find the reason why the author thinks that…? Can you find the reason why the author believes..?
  • How are these two books showing the same topic in different ways?

Language

Uses standard grammar and usage when writing and speaking
An understanding of language is essential for effective communication. “The inclusion of Language standards in their own strand should not be taken as an indication that skills related to conventions, knowledge of language, and vocabulary is unimportant to reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing; indeed, they are inseparable from such contexts.”
 
Kindergarten students must have a command of the grammar and usage of spoken and written standard English. Standards that are related to conventions are appropriate to formal spoken English as they are to formal written English.
Recognizes standard conventions of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling

At this level, emphasis is on using complete sentences, forming questions, using plurals, and the more commonly used prepositions. With conventions, students are becoming adept at ending punctuation, capitalizing (I), and spelling simple words.

Uses vocabulary acquired through conversations, reading, and responding to text

Learning words at this stage includes exploring different shades of the same verb (run/sprint) inflections, common concepts/objects, words with multiple meanings, opposites, and how words are used in “real-life.”

Asks and answers questions about unknown vocabulary in text
With assistance, students should understand how a piece of informational text is structured. At this level, students ask and answer questions about words they do not know; they can identify the main print concepts/features of a book and understand the roles of both author and illustrator. 

Use questions and prompts such as: 
What do you do when you come to a word you do not know? What can help you? (glossary, use context) 
Students use clues to identify words or word meanings.

Writing

Uses a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose text
Kindergarten students must be able to express their opinion and demonstrate the ability to share their opinion with others. In kindergarten, students learn to dictate their thinking, illustrate their ideas, and write their thoughts across various genres (opinion, informative/explanatory, narrative). In order to do so, students will need multiple opportunities to express opinions and develop writing behaviors.
 
Students will need to engage in behaviors (turn and talk, small group discussion, and emergent writing and speaking learning centers) that lead to the natural expression of ideas both verbally and in writing. Students will also need a purposeful focus on choice-making throughout English Language Arts.
 
  • For example, kindergarten students need to be able to choose words or illustrations to use within their writing that show their thinking. Whether dictating, drawing, or writing, students must be able to articulate their ideas in a way that is purposeful and appropriate to the audience.
Participates in shared research and writing projects
Kindergarten students are required to participate in shared research projects. Students will need to understand their role (job on the team) and how they will contribute (work they will do) on the project from beginning to end. Items, such as, task charts, check sheets, and graphic organizers will be helpful to students as they learn to work together. 

At this level, students are working with provided research. They need to know how to scan the information provided (words, pictures, digital sources) and/or recall from their own background knowledge the pieces they need to answer research questions. Students do this work with prompting and support. 

Mathematics

Counting and Cardinality

Writes numbers from 0 to 20

Students rote count by starting at one and counting to 100. When students count by tens they are only expected to master counting on the decade (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 …). This objective does not require recognition of numerals. 
It is focused on the rote number sequence.

Counts forward beginning at any number

Students begin a rote forward counting sequence from a number other than 1. Thus, given the number 4, the student would count, “4, 5, 6, 7 …” This objective does not require recognition of numerals. It is focused on the rote number sequence 0-100. 

Counts to tell the number of objects in a set

In order to answer “how many?” students need to keep track of objects when counting. Keeping track is a method of counting that is used to count each item once and only once when determining how many. After numerous experiences with counting objects, along with the developmental understanding that a group of objects counted multiple times will remain the same amount, students recognize the need for keeping track in order to accurately determine “how many”. Depending on the amount of objects to be counted, and the students’ confidence with counting a set of objects, students may move the objects as they count each, point to each object as counted, look without touching when counting, or use a combination of these strategies. It is important that children develop a strategy that makes sense to them based on the realization that keeping track is important in order to get an accurate count, as opposed to following a rule, such as “Line them all up before you count”, in order to get the right answer.

As children learn to count accurately, they may count a set correctly one time, but not another. Other times they may be able to keep track up to a certain amount, but then lose track from then on. Some arrangements, such as a line or rectangular array, are easier for them to get the correct answer but may limit their flexibility with developing meaningful tracking strategies, so providing multiple arrangements help children learn how to keep track. Since scattered arrangements are the most challenging for students, this standard specifies that students only count up to 10 objects in a scattered arrangement and count up to 20 objects in a line, rectangular array, or circle.

Compares numbers to identify greater than, less than, or equal to

Students use their counting ability to compare sets of objects (0-10). They may use matching strategies, counting strategies or equal shares to determine whether one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking

Understands addition as putting together and adding to
Students demonstrate the understanding of how objects can be joined (addition) and separated (subtraction) by representing addition and subtraction situations in various ways. This objective is focused on understanding the concept of addition and subtraction, rather than reading and solving addition and subtraction number sentences(equations).
 
Common Core State Standards for Mathematics states, “Kindergarten students should see addition and subtraction equations, and student writing of equations in kindergarten is encouraged, but it is not required.”
 
Please note that it is not until First Grade when “Understand the meaning of the equal sign” is an expectation. Therefore, before introducing symbols (+, -, =) and equations, kindergarteners require numerous  experiences using joining (addition) and separating (subtraction) vocabulary in order to attach meaning to the various symbols. For example, when explaining a solution, kindergartens may state, “Three and two is the same amount as 5.” While the meaning of the equal sign is not introduced as a standard until First Grade, if equations are going to be modeled and used in Kindergarten, students must connect the symbol (=) with its meaning (is the same amount/quantity as).
Understands subtraction as taking apart and taking away from
Students demonstrate the understanding of how objects can be joined (addition) and separated (subtraction) by representing addition and subtraction situations in various ways. This objective is focused on understanding the concept of addition and subtraction, rather than reading and solving addition and subtraction number sentences (equations).
 
Common Core State Standards for Mathematics states, “Kindergarten students should see addition and subtraction equations, and student writing of equations in kindergarten is encouraged, but it is not required.”
 
Please note that it is not until First Grade when “Understand the meaning of the equal sign” is an expectation. Therefore, before introducing symbols (+, -, =) and equations, kindergarteners require numerous experiences using joining (addition) and separating (subtraction) vocabulary in order to attach meaning to the various symbols. For example, when explaining a solution, kindergartens may state, “Three and two is the same amount as 5.” While the meaning of the equal sign is not introduced as a standard until First Grade, if equations are going to be modeled and used in Kindergarten, students must connect the symbol (=) with its meaning (is the same amount/quantity as).
 
Adds with sums to 5 and knows related subtraction facts
Students are fluent when they display accuracy (correct answer), efficiency (a reasonable amount of steps in about 3 seconds without resorting to counting), and flexibility (using strategies such as the distributive property).
 
Students develop fluency by understanding and internalizing the relationships that exist between and among numbers. Oftentimes, when children think of each “fact” as an individual item that does not relate to any other “fact”, they are attempting to memorize separate bits of information that can be easily forgotten. Instead, in order to fluently add and subtract, children must first be able to see sub-parts within a number.
 
Once they have reached this milestone, children need repeated experiences with many different types of concrete materials (such as cubes, chips, and buttons) over an extended amount of time in order to recognize that there areonly particular sub-parts for each number. Therefore, children will realize that if 3 and 2 is a combination of 5, then 3 and 2 cannot be a combination of 6.
 
After numerous opportunities to explore, represent and discuss “4”, a student becomes able to fluently answer problems such as, “One bird was on the tree. Three more birds came. How many are on the tree now?”; and “There was one bird on the tree. Some more came. There are now 4 birds on the tree. How many birds.

Numbers and Operations in Base Ten

Works with tens and ones up to 19 to establish place value concepts

Students explore numbers 11-19 using representations, such as manipulatives or drawings. Keeping each count as a single unit, kindergarteners use 10 objects to represent “10” rather than creating a unit called a ten (unitizing) as indicated in the First Grade CCSS standard 1.NBT.1a: 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones — called a “ten.”

Example:
Teacher: “I have some chips here. Do you think they will fit on our ten frame? Why? Why Not?”
Students: Share thoughts with one another.
Teacher: “Use your ten frame to investigate.”
Students: “Look. There’s too many to fit on the ten frame. Only ten chips will fit on it.”
Teacher: “So you have some leftovers?”
Students: “Yes. I’ll put them over here next to the ten frame.”
Teacher: “So, how many do you have in all?”
Student A: “One, two, three, four, five… ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen. I have fourteen. Ten fit on and four didn’t.”
Student B: Pointing to the ten frame, “See them- that’s 10… 11, 12, 13, 14. There’s fourteen.”
Teacher: Use your recording sheet (or number sentence cards) to show what you found out.

Measurement and Data

Describes measureable attributes of an object such as length, height, and weight

Students describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length, weight, size, and color. For example, a student may describe a shoe with one attribute, “Look! My shoe is blue, too!”, or more than one attribute, “This shoe is heavy! It’s also really long.”
 

Compares two objects with the same measureable attributes and describes differences

Direct comparisons are made when objects are put next to each other, such as two children, two books, two
pencils. For example, a student may line up two blocks and say, “The blue block is a lot longer than the white
one.” Students are not comparing objects that cannot be moved and lined up next to each other.

Geometry

Identifies and describes squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres
This entire cluster asks students to understand that certain attributes define what a shape is called (number of sides, number of angles, etc.) and other attributes do not (color, size, orientation). Using geometric attributes, the student identifies and describes squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres. Throughout the year, Kindergarten students move from informal language to describe what shapes look like (e.g., “That looks like an ice cream cone!”) to more formal mathematical language (e.g., “That is a triangle. All of its sides are the same length”).
Describes the relative position of objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to

Students use positional words (such as those italicized in the standard) to describe objects in the environment.
Kindergarten students need numerous experiences identifying the location and position of actual two-and-three dimensional objects in their classroom/school prior to describing location and position of two-and-three dimension representations on paper.
 

Identifies shapes as two-dimensional (flat) or three-dimensional (solid)

Students identify objects as flat (2 dimensional) or solid (3 dimensional). As the teacher embeds the vocabulary into students’ exploration of various shapes, students use the terms two-dimensional and three-dimensional as they discuss the properties of various shapes.

Describes similarities and differences of two- and three-dimensional shapes
Students relate one shape to another as they note similarities and differences between and among 2-D and  
3-D shapes using informal language.

For example, when comparing a triangle and a square, they note that they both have sides, but the triangle has 3 sides while the square has 4. Or, when building in the Block Center, they notice that the faces on the cube are allsquare shapes.
Composes simple shapes to form larger shapes
This standard moves beyond identifying and classifying simple shapes to manipulating two or more shapes to
create a new shape. This concept begins to develop as students move, rotate, flip, and arrange puzzle pieces to complete a puzzle. Kindergarteners use their experiences with puzzles to use simple shapes to create different shapes.

For example, when using basic shapes to create a picture, a student flips and turns triangles to make a rectangular house.

Science

Understands concepts and vocabulary
Applies process skills to solve problems

Social Studies

Understands past, present, and future in geography, culture, civics, history
Uses vocabulary acquired through conversations, text, and the use of geographic tools

First Grade

Language Arts

Foundational Skills

Demonstrates understanding of the organization and basic features of print

Students will understand how a sentence is organized.

  • Use questions and prompts such as:
  • Show me the first word of the sentence.
  • Where does the period (question mark, etc) go?
  • How does a sentence begin?
  • What goes at the end of a sentence?
Demonstrates understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds

Use questions and prompts such as:

  • Does this word have a long or short vowel sound?
  • Say each sound you hear in this word slowly.
  • What do you hear at the beginning of this word? What do you hear next? At the end?
  • Can you clap the syllables in this word?
Reads regularly and irregularly spelled words 

Students continue learning specific strategies for decoding words in texts. Learning suffixes and vowel patterns enhances decoding, spelling ability, and vocabulary development. 
Use questions and prompts such as:

  • Does that sound right?
  • Does that look right?
  • Does that make sense?
  • Look at the word, does it look like…?
  • You said…does it look like…? What do these two letters sound like together (sh, th, ch) in this word?
  • Can you clap the syllables in this word?
  • What does this final e tell you about this word?
  • Look at the beginning of that word, can you get it started?
Uses knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound 

Use questions and prompts such as:

  • Does this word have a long or short vowel sound?
  • Say each sound you hear in this word slowly.
  • What do you hear at the beginning of this word? What do you hear next? At the end?
Reads high-frequency words by sight 
Writes high-frequency words 
Reads text fluently with purpose and understanding  

Fluency helps the reader process language for meaning and enjoyment. Fluent readers are able to focus attention on the meaning of the text. Readers at this stage benefit from opportunities to read texts multiple times at an independent level. 
Use questions and prompts such as:

  • Make your reading sound like the characters are talking.
  • Make your voice sound like the words are together.
  • Make your voice go up when you see the question mark at the end.
  • Make your voice go down when you see the period at the end.
  • Go back and reread when it doesn’t sound or look like you think it should.

Reading Standards for Literature

Asks and answers questions using key details in a text 

First grade students continue to build on the skill of asking and answering questions about key details in a text. At this level, students use key details to retell stories in their own words, reveal an understanding about the central message of the text, and tell about the story elements. 
Use questions and prompts such as:

  • Can you tell me what happened in the story at the beginning? What happened after that? What happened at the end of the story?
  • Can you tell me where the story took place?
  • Can you tell me the important things that happened in the story?
  • Who are the characters in the story? What do you know about them?
Retells stories including characters, settings, and events 

First grade students continue to build on the skill of asking and answering questions about key details in a text. At this level, students use key details to retell stories in their own words, reveal an understanding about the central message of the text, and tell about the story elements. 
Use questions and prompts such as:

  • Can you tell me what happened in the story at the beginning? What happened after that? What happened at the end of the story?
  • Can you tell me where the story took place?
  • Can you tell me the important things that happened in the story?
  • Who are the characters in the story? What do you know about them?
Compares and contrasts various text genres 

First grade students begin to look at how words are used in a text by naming words and phrases that contribute to the feeling of the poem or story. They should understand the difference between books that tell stories and books that provide information. First grade students should be able to name who is telling the story. Use questions and prompts such as:

  • Can you find the feeling words in this poem/story?
  • Is this book an informational book or a story book? How do you know?

Reading Standards for Informational Text

Identifies the main topic and retells important information

First grade students continue to build on the skill of asking and answering questions about key details in a text. At this level, students should be able to identify the main idea and retell the key details in their own words. They should also be able to tell how two individuals, events, ideas or pieces of information are linked together. 
Use questions and prompts such as:

  • Think about what you read and create your own question about an important idea in this text.
  • What is the main idea of this text?
  • Can you find one of the important ideas in this text? Can you find another important idea?
Describes the connection between two individuals, events, or ideas

Students are required to use pictures and details in a story to tell about characters, setting, and events. They continue to build on character development by looking at similarities and differences in characters‟ experiences in stories. 
Use questions and prompts such as:

  • Can you find an illustration or part that shows the main character?
  • Can you find an illustration or part that shows the setting?
  • Can you find an illustration or part that shows the problem in the story?
  • What is the same about the characters in the two stories? What is different?
  • What happened to the characters that is the same? What is different?
  • Did the characters solve the problem in different ways? If so, how?
  • Can you tell me how these two events are linked together? (cause/effect, time order)
Knows and uses various text features to locate information
Compares and contrasts two texts on the same topic

Students will look for similarities and differences in two texts that share the same main idea.

  • Look at these two texts about the same topic. How are they the same? How are they different?

Language

Uses standard grammar and usage when writing and speaking

First grade students must have a command of the grammar and usage of spoken and written standard English. Standards that are related to conventions are appropriate to formal spoken English as they are to formal written English. At this level, emphasis expands to include verb tense, possessives, pronouns, adjectives, conjunctions, and more complex sentences. Students must be able to articulate their ideas in complete sentences when appropriate to the audience.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  1. Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
  2. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
  3. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).
  4. Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything).
  5. Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).
  6. Use frequently occurring adjectives.
  7. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).
  8. Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).
  9. Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
  10. Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts
Uses standard conventions of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling/td>

With conventions, students are becoming more adept at ending punctuation, expanding their understanding and usage of capitalization, and spelling unknown words phonetically.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  1. Capitalize dates and names of people.
  2. Use end punctuation for sentences.
  3. Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.
  4. Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.
  5. Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions
Uses strategies to determine or clarify the meaning of unknown words

First grade students should choose flexibility from an array of strategies.

  1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
  3. Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking).
With support, understands word relationships and nuances in meanings

With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

  1. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
  2. Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes).
  3. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
  4. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.  
Uses vocabulary acquired through conversations, reading, and responding to text

Learning words at this stage includes exploring different shades of the same verb (run/sprint), adjectives of differing intensity, and inflectional forms; understanding categories of common concepts/objects; and defining words by category

Writing

Writes opinion, informative/explanatory, and narrative texts

First grade students should be able to

  • Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.
  • Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words (now, when, then) to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.
With support, uses digital tools to produce and publish writing

With assistance, students will use digital tools to publish their writing independently and in collaboration with peers (use of keyboarding and technology). At this grade level, students will need to be able to “log on” to programs, computer stations, and hand-held devises to engage with digital media.

Participates in shared research and writing projects

First grade students are required to participate in shared research projects. Students will need to understand their role (job on the team) and how they will contribute (work they will do) on the project from beginning to end. Items, such as, task charts, check sheets, and graphic organizers will be helpful to students as they learn to work together.

At this level, students are working with provided research. They need to know how to scan the information provided (words, pictures, digital sources) and/or recall from their own background knowledge the pieces they need to answer research questions and take notes. Students do this work with prompting and support.

Mathematics

Operations and Algebraic Thinking

Solves problems involving addition and subtraction
Understands the relationship between addition and subtraction
Adds with sums to 20 and knows related subtraction facts
Determines the unknown whole number in addition or subtraction equations
Explains problem-solving strategies

Numbers and Operations in Base Ten

Counts to __________
Reads, writes, and recognizes numbers to 120
Works with tens and ones to establish place value concepts
Counts by tens starting at any number
Mentally adds or subtracts 10 from any number without counting
Adds two-digit and one-digit numbers or two-digit numbers and a multiple of 10 with sums to 100
Compares two two-digit numbers using the symbols >, =, or <

Measurement and Data

Uses non-standard units to measure and compare lengths
Tells and writes time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks
Organizes, represents, and interprets data with up to three categories

Geometry

Identifies shapes based on defining properties
Composes two- and three-dimensional shapes to create a composite shape
Divides circles and rectangles into halves and quarters

Science

Understands concepts and vocabulary
Applies process skills to solve problems

Social Studies

Understands past, present, and future in geography, culture, civics, history
Uses vocabulary acquired through conversations, text, and the use of geographic tools

Second Grade

Language Arts

Foundational Skills

Reads regularly and irregularly spelled words

Students continue learning specific strategies for decoding words in texts. Learning prefixes, suffixes, and vowel patterns enhances decoding, spelling ability, and vocabulary development.

  • Use questions and prompts such as:

Does that sound right? 
Does that look right? 
Does that make sense? 
Look for chunks you know and say them. 
Look at the beginning of the word and try it again. 
Look at the end of the word and try it again. 

Decodes words with common prefixes and suffixes

Students continue learning specific strategies for decoding words in texts. Learning prefixes, suffixes, and vowel patterns enhances decoding, spelling ability, and vocabulary development.

  • Use questions and prompts such as:

Does that sound right? 
Does that look right? 
Does that make sense? 
Look for chunks you know and say them. 
Look at the beginning of the word and try it again. 
Look at the end of the word and try it again.

Reads high-frequency words by sight

Students continue learning specific strategies for decoding words in texts. Learning prefixes, suffixes, and vowel patterns enhances decoding, spelling ability, and vocabulary development.

  • Use questions and prompts such as:

Does that sound right? 
Does that look right? 
Does that make sense? 
Look for chunks you know and say them. 
Look at the beginning of the word and try it again. 
Look at the end of the word and try it again.

Writes high-frequency words

Students continue learning specific strategies for decoding words in texts. Learning prefixes, suffixes, and vowel patterns enhances decoding, spelling ability, and vocabulary development.

  • Use questions and prompts such as:

Does that sound right? 
Does that look right? 
Does that make sense? 
Look for chunks you know and say them. 
Look at the beginning of the word and try it again. 
Look at the end of the word and try it again.

 
Reads text fluently with purpose and understanding  

Students continue learning specific strategies for decoding words in texts. Learning prefixes, suffixes, and vowel patterns enhances decoding, spelling ability, and vocabulary development.

  • Use questions and prompts such as:

Does that sound right? 
Does that look right? 
Does that make sense? 
Look for chunks you know and say them. 
Look at the beginning of the word and try it again. 
Look at the end of the word and try it again.

Reading Standards for Literature

 
With support, asks and answers questions using key details in a text

With assistance, students will understand what key details are and be able to ask and answer questions about them.

With support, retells stories including characters, settings, and events
They need to put key details in sequential order to retell a story they know. They also have to be able to recognize and name elements in a story.
Use questions and prompts such as:
  • Can you tell me what happened at the beginning of the story? What happened after that? What happened at the end of the story?
  • Can you find the part that tells where the story takes place (picture or words)?
  • Who was in the story? Can you find (picture or words) this character?
With support, compares and contrasts characters' experiences

Students will look for similarities and differences in characters’ experiences within stories they know.
Use questions and prompts such as:

  • What is the same about the characters in the two stories? What is different?
  • How did the characters solve the problem in the two stories? Did they solve the problem in the same way?

Reading Standards for Informational Text

Asks and answers questions to demonstrate understanding of key details information

Students are required to use textual evidence to ask and answer general questions about key details using who, what, when, where, why, and how. They are required to be able to read several paragraphs and identify the main idea. Along with recognizing main idea, students need to be able to understand the overall focus of a text with several paragraphs.

Students at this level are required to describe how historical events, scientific ideas or “how to” procedures are linked together in a text.

  • Use questions and prompts such as:

Think about what you read and create your own questions (using who, what, when, where, why, and/or how) about an important idea in this text. 
What is the main idea of this text? 
What are the important ideas in this text? How do you know? 
Which step comes first? After that? 
What happened first? After that? 
Can you tell me how these ideas are the same? Can you tell me how they are different? 

Identifies the main topic and paragraph topics within a text

Students are required to use textual evidence to ask and answer general questions about key details using who, what, when, where, why, and how. They are required to be able to read several paragraphs and identify the main idea. Along with recognizing main idea, students need to be able to understand the overall focus of a text with several paragraphs.

Students at this level are required to describe how historical events, scientific ideas or “how to” procedures are linked together in a text.

  • Use questions and prompts such as:

Think about what you read and create your own questions (using who, what, when, where, why, and/or how) about an important idea in this text. 
What is the main idea of this text? 
What are the important ideas in this text? How do you know? 
Which step comes first? After that? 
What happened first? After that? 
Can you tell me how these ideas are the same? Can you tell me how they are different?

Describes the connection between historical events, scientific ideas or procedural steps

Students are required to use textual evidence to ask and answer general questions about key details using who, what, when, where, why, and how. They are required to be able to read several paragraphs and identify the main idea. Along with recognizing main idea, students need to be able to understand the overall focus of a text with several paragraphs.

Students at this level are required to describe how historical events, scientific ideas or “how to” procedures are linked together in a text.

  • Use questions and prompts such as:

Think about what you read and create your own questions (using who, what, when, where, why, and/or how) about an important idea in this text. 
What is the main idea of this text? 
What are the important ideas in this text? How do you know? 
Which step comes first? After that? 
What happened first? After that? 
Can you tell me how these ideas are the same? Can you tell me how they are different?

Knows and uses various text features to locate information

Students are required to find out word meanings and phrases that are specific to grade 2. As students continue to build the skill of using text features to find information with proficiency, they need to be able to use captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, electronic menus, icons, etc. to analyze the text information.

Students are required to tell the main purpose of a text according to what the author wants the reader to know.

Use questions and prompts such as: 
What features in the text help you find important information about what you are reading? 
How do the subheadings help you understand what you are reading? 
How does the glossary help you? 
How does bold print help you? 
Why do you think the author wrote this text? 
What does the author want you to learn from this text? 

Describes how reasons supports specific points the author makes

Students are required to integrate visual and print information to clarify understanding. 
At this level, students should also be able describe the author’s reasoning by finding support within the text. 
Second grade students are required to identify the most important points in a text. Then, they should be able to find similarities and differences in the points they have identified when reading about two texts that share the same topic.

  • Use questions and prompts such as:

How does the diagram/image help you understand what you are reading? 
Can you tell ways the author uses specific information in a text to help you understand? 
Can you find the reason why the author thinks that…? 
Can you find the reason why the author believes…? 
Look at these two texts about the same topic. What is the same about the points presented in these two texts? What is different? 

Compares and contrasts important points presented by two texts on the same topic

Students are required to integrate visual and print information to clarify understanding. 
At this level, students should also be able describe the author’s reasoning by finding support within the text. 
Second grade students are required to identify the most important points in a text. Then, they should be able to find similarities and differences in the points they have identified when reading about two texts that share the same topic.

  • Use questions and prompts such as:

How does the diagram/image help you understand what you are reading? 
Can you tell ways the author uses specific information in a text to help you understand? 
Can you find the reason why the author thinks that…? 
Can you find the reason why the author believes…? 
Look at these two texts about the same topic. What is the same about the points presented in these two texts? What is different? 

Language

Uses standard grammar and usage when writing and speaking

Students in grade 2 will use what they know about HOW language works when they write, speak, read, and listen.

Uses standard conventions of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  1. Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
  2. Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
  3. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
  4. Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage → badge; boy → boil).
  5. Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.
Compares formal and informal uses of English

Students at this level will compare writing and speaking that is formal and informal. In order to do so, students will need strategies for reading across various authors and genres to compare writing styles and effects of language usage.

Uses strategies to determine or clarify the meaning of unknown words

The overall focus of language learning in regards to vocabulary acquisition is to guide students as they make purposeful language choices in writing and speaking in order to communicate effectively in a wide range of print and digital texts.

Demonstrates understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings

Learning words at this stage consists in part of exploring different shades of the same verb (run/sprint) and closely related adjectives, growing vocabulary by using known word parts (prefix, root or compound part) to acquire unknown words, and developing print and digital reference use (glossary and dictionary).

Uses vocabulary acquired through conversations, reading, and responding to text

Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy). 

Writing

Writes opinion, informative/explanatory, and narrative texts

Second grade students write across genres including (opinion, informative/explanatory, and narrative). They must be able to find and include facts and definitions as part of informative/explanatory writing. In order to do so, students need strategies for researching a topic (gathering facts), selecting relevant information (picking the facts to use/note taking), and developing a way to present the ideas from beginning to end (format and organization of written presentation). Narrative writing must describe the order of events as they occurred using temporal words (first, next, then, last, etc).

With support, revises and edits writing

With assistance from adults and peers, students should focus their writing on a topic and develop revising and editing skills. In order to do so, students need to understand how to change word choice and sentence structure in their writing to strengthen their piece. They also need to develop the ability to recognize spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors and have strategies for correcting these errors with assistance (conferences, check sheets, peer editing). 

With support, uses digital tools to produce and publish writing

With assistance, students continue to use digital tools to publish their writing independently and in collaboration with peers (use of keyboarding and technology). At this grade level, students will need to be able to “log on” to programs, computer stations, and hand-held devises to engage with digital media.

Participates in shared research and writing projects

Second grade students are required to participate in shared research projects. Students will need to understand their role (job on the team) and how they will contribute (work they will do) on the project from beginning to end. Items, such as, task charts, check sheets, and graphic organizers will be helpful to students as they learn to work together.

Mathematics

Operations and Algebraic Thinking

Represents and solves problems involving addition and subtraction
Knows from memory all 2 one-digit sums and related subtraction facts
Uses equal groups and repeated addition as strategies to establish a foundation for multiplication concepts

Numbers and Operations in Base Ten

Reads and writes numbers to 1,000 using numerals, number names, expanded form
Skip-counts by fives, tens, and hundreds
Compares two three-digit numbers using the symbols >, =, or <
Understands place value to 1,000
Mentally adds or subtracts 10 or 100 from any given number without counting
Adds and subtracts within 1,000 using concrete models and strategies based on place value

Measurement and Data

Measures and estimates lengths in standard units(inches, feet, centimeters, meters)
Solves problems involving length measurement
Tells and writes time to the nearest five minutes using analog and digital clocks
Solves problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies
Represents, organizes, and interprets data using picture graphs and bar graphs

Geometry

Identifies specific types of triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes given the number of angles and sides or faces
Divides circles and rectangles into halves, thirds, and fourths

Science

Understands concepts and vocabulary
Applies process skills to solve problems

Social Studies

Understands past, present, and future in geography, culture, civics, history
Uses vocabulary acquired through conversations, text, and the use of geographic tools